How to Solve Check Fraud

Check fraud is a persistent issue, even in our rapidly evolving digital world. The crime may seem almost antiquated, but it poses a real threat to both individuals and businesses. With this in mind, we'll delve into understanding check fraud, its various forms, the impact it has, and most importantly, the preventive measures that can be taken.
Picture of Ritesh Arora

Ritesh Arora

May 26, 2023

Check fraud has become a pressing issue in our increasingly digital age. While this crime may seem outdated, it still causes significant damage to both individuals and businesses. Understanding check fraud, its impact, and the measures to prevent it is crucial. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide to tackling this problem.

Understanding Check Fraud

Check fraud is a criminal act that involves the unlawful use of checks to illegally acquire or borrow funds that do not belong to the user. The fraudster can either alter a legitimate check, forge the payer’s signature, or even use stolen checks. Understanding its nuances is the first step toward combating check fraud.

Types of Check Fraud

There are four common types of check fraud:

  • Counterfeit Checks: These are checks created using sophisticated software and high-quality printers that mimic the look of legitimate checks.
  • Forged Checks: These checks are genuine but are signed by someone other than the account holder.
  • Altered Checks: In this scenario, a legitimate check is manipulated by changing the payee’s name or the amount on the check.
  • Check Kiting: This common form of check fraud involves taking advantage of the float to use non-existent funds in a checking or other bank account to allow checks issued to clear when in reality, the balance in the account is less than the amount of the check.

The Impact of Check Fraud

Personal Impact

Check fraud, like any other type of fraud, can have a significant personal impact on an individual. Here are some of the potential effects:

  • Credit Damage: Check fraud can lead to a negative credit report, making it difficult to secure loans or credit cards in the future.
  • Time and Stress: Dealing with the aftermath of check fraud can be time-consuming and stressful. It often involves contacting banks, filing police reports, and possibly hiring a lawyer. 
  • Identity Theft: Check fraud can sometimes involve identity theft, which can have various additional impacts. An identity thief could open new accounts in your name, incur debts, or commit crimes, all of which could lead to significant personal and financial difficulties.


Financial Institution Impact

Check fraud can also significantly impact financial institutions like banks and credit unions. Here’s how:

  • Financial Loss: The most obvious impact is the loss incurred when a fraudulent check is cashed or deposited. While some of these losses can be passed on to customers or offset by insurance, not all can, and substantial cases of fraud can impact a financial institution’s bottom line.
  • Operational Costs: Dealing with check fraud involves significant operational costs. These include the time and resources spent on identifying, investigating, and prosecuting fraud and the costs of implementing and maintaining anti-fraud technologies.
  • Reputation Damage: If a significant fraud case hits a bank or credit union or is seen as vulnerable to fraud, it can damage its reputation. Customers want to know that their money is safe, and a reputation for poor security can lead to losing existing customers and difficulty attracting new ones.
  • Regulatory Scrutiny: Cases of fraud can lead to increased scrutiny from regulatory bodies. This can lead to additional compliance costs, potential penalties, and again, damage to the institution’s reputation.
  • Customer Relations: Dealing with check fraud can strain relationships with customers. If an account holder’s check is involved in fraud, the bank may need to freeze their account, causing inconvenience or financial difficulty for the customer. Even if the customer is reimbursed for any losses, they may be unhappy about the incident, leading to loss of trust and potential loss of the customer.
  • Increased Insurance Premiums: If a bank or credit union experiences repeated check fraud, it could increase insurance premiums, adding to the operational costs.

General Preventive Measures Against Check Fraud

Here are some effective strategies to prevent check fraud:

For Individuals

  • Review Financial Statements Regularly: Regularly reviewing your financial statements can help you spot any fraudulent activity.
  • Secure Personal Information: Keeping your personal and financial information secure is a critical step in preventing check fraud.
  • Take Advantage of Paperless Statements: Physical mail is easily stolen and can be used to aid fraudsters in stealing your identity.

For Businesses

Financial institutions can employ several strategies and technologies to prevent check fraud. These include:

  • Account Holder Education: By educating customers about the risks and signs of check fraud, banks can enlist their help in spotting and reporting suspicious activity. This could include information about common scams, advice on safeguarding checks and account information, and instructions on what to do if they suspect fraud.
  • Enhanced Verification Procedures: Banks can implement procedures to verify checks’ authenticity and the person’s identity cashing or depositing them. This could include asking for additional ID, calling the issuing bank to verify large checks, and setting up protocols for handling suspicious checks.
  • Fraud Detection Technologies: Various technologies can help detect fraudulent checks. These include automated systems for spotting altered or counterfeit checks, machine learning algorithms for identifying unusual account activity, and biometric authentication methods.
  • Positive Pay Systems: In a positive pay system, a business customer provides the bank with a list of all the checks they’ve issued, including the check number, amount, and payee name. The bank then only pays checks that match this list. This can help prevent fraud involving altered or counterfeit checks.
  • Check Security Features: Banks can use checks that include security features making them harder to alter or counterfeit. These could include watermarks, microprinting, or heat-sensitive ink.
  • Continuous Account Monitoring: Regularly monitoring accounts for unusual activity can help detect fraud early. This could involve setting up automatic alerts for large withdrawals or other suspicious transactions.
  • Two-factor Authentication: When customers are making significant transactions, a two-step verification process can be used. This may involve sending a one-time password (OTP) to the customer’s registered mobile number or email address.


How Effectiv Helps Financial Institutions Stop Check Fraud

Successfully combating check fraud typically comes down to these 5 things:

  1. Beneficiary Profile: For account-based transactions like wire transfers, ACH, and checks, creating a detailed beneficiary profile is crucial. This includes tracking the number and value of checks they accept over a certain period and the timing of these transactions. Over time, an average behavior pattern emerges. Deviations from this pattern can then be compared with broader population averages to detect potential anomalies.
  2. Sender-Beneficiary Linkages: Real-time tracking and analysis of the sender-beneficiary relationship is another key factor. For instance, is this their first transaction? Or is there a repeated pattern of transactions from the same sender, with similar values, at certain times of the year?
  3. Sender Profile: Detailed profiling of the sender is also vital. If this is the first time a sender interacts with a certain beneficiary or the first time a sender has been detected, it’s important to take note. Tracking the size, frequency, and timing of checks from recurrent senders can identify suspicious behavior.
  4. Best-in-Class OCR Tech: When it comes to remote deposit capture, advanced OCR (Optical Character Recognition) technology is paramount. This allows for accurate and swift reading of checks, and detection of counterfeit checks, significantly reducing the chances of fraudulent transactions.
  5. Utilizing Advanced Machine Learning: Combining this information with associated data points like IP, email, phone, and address enables sophisticated machine learning models to establish a detailed profile of low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk behavior.


Learn more about Effectiv’s fraud detection & monitoring solutions at

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